A search towards alternative ways: replacing conventional chelation therapy against arsenic-induced female reprotoxicity: A review

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Sandip Chattopadhyay


long-term intake of contaminated water and poses the greatest public health threat from arsenic. Depending on the degree of exposure,
its drastic effects might take years to manifest in developing skin lesions and peripheral neuropathy. Major radical changes occur with
the onset of developmental toxicity and reproductive health hazards in both sexes. Arsenic causes cellular damage by promoting
oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, resulting in chromosomal aberration and DNA damage. Managing the
health risks brought on by arsenic has now become a global challenge. Available therapeutic strategy against arsenicosis is mainly
concerned with using chelating agents that very often redistribute arsenic in the brain. This chelating treatment approach also needs
a painful and invasive route that discourages affected individuals from continuing the therapy. Hence, we focused on alternative noninvasive
strategies in managing female reproductive ailments in arsenicated animals. We used different micronutrients, herbal extracts,
phytochemicals, etc. The studies established that arsenic-nutrients/arsenic-phytomolecules interaction efficaciously reduced toxicity
levels by correcting the components of the s-adenosine-methionine pool (SAM) on the way of endorsing probable elimination of
arsenic from the system. Natural non-enzymatic antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium were investigated against arsenic
toxicity and proved to be beneficial for scavenging free radicals. These nutrients also enhance female gonadal function by regulating
ovarian steroidogenesis and gonadotropin levels by controlling the brain’s biogenic amines. Phyto compounds such as curcumin,
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), arjunolic acid, extracts of green tea leaves (Camellia sinensis), pectic polysaccharide (CCPS) from bitter gourd
(Momordica charantia) and functional foods such as probiotics and spirulina have been studied. These have been shown to mitigate
arsenic toxicity via regulating various inflammatory markers such as NF-κB, MT-1, TNF-α, IL-6, etc. The potential benefits of these were
also shown against arsenic toxicity by upregulating Bcl-2 gene expression accompanied with suppression of pro-apoptotic genes BAX,
p53 caspase-3, PARP, PCNA, AKT, etc., and eventually corrected female reproductive stress with improved fertility in arsenicated rats.
Hence, these findings may pave the way for the development of a new drug as well as nutraceuticals with more effective and noninvasive
therapeutic approaches for arsenic toxicity.

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How to Cite
Chattopadhyay, S. . (2023). A search towards alternative ways: replacing conventional chelation therapy against arsenic-induced female reprotoxicity: A review. INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY AND ALLIED SCIENCES, 75(03), 39–49. Retrieved from https://ijpas.org/index.php/ijpas/article/view/198
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