Indian Journal of Physiology and Allied Sciences

List of Articles

Correlation between nutritional status and stress response among adolescent girls in Kolkata, West Bengal
BARNALI RAY BASU
BARNALI RAY BASU
(Corresponding Author)
barnalibasu@yahoo.com

Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Surendranath College, 24/2, M.G. Road. Kolkata-700009

Page : 95-102 , vol : 69 ,No : 4 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Adolescent is the period of rapid physical and psychological changes and considered to be the most vulnerable segment of the population in relation to nutritional, physical and behavioral aspects. The changing life style pattern, dietary habits, peer pressure to achieve educational success and limited finances create a stress on them.
The reciprocal interaction between stress and reproductive axis is manifested by ovulatory abnormalities and infertility in female adolescent girls. The main objective of this study is to find out whether the adolescent girls are facing any kind of stress-related hazards in reference to their diet, academic pressure and modern life-style pattern which can impair their health status.
50 adolescent girls (12-19 years) were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires about nutritional status, general heath, menstrual cycle and source of stress. Height, weight, BMI, BMR and body fat content (by Bioimpedance analyser), blood pressure, heart rate and O2 saturation was measured.
The adolescent girls were stunned which indicates chronic malnutrition and lack of physical growth. Majority of them had a lower BMI (younger) and higher dysmenorrhea (older). Academic workload was found to be the most stressful event followed by, exercising, inadequate sleep, unhealthy dietary habits, and socio-economical status.


Trends in research on paraquat-induced parkinsonism
NILKANTA CHAKRABARTI
NILKANTA CHAKRABARTI
(Corresponding Author)

Department of Physiology, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C Road, Kolkata – 700 009.

Page : 103-116 , vol : 69 ,No : 4 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Paraquat, a herbicide widely used in agriculture for better crop production, is an environmental toxin and causes oxidative stress-induced systemic damages in plants, animals and humans. Epidemiological studies report that paraquat toxicity is related to the onset of parkinsonism in humans. Animal experimentations indicate that paraquat toxicity causes the cellular and molecular changes associated with parkinsonism. Experimental evidences show that bloodbrain-barrier limits the paraquat entry in brain of primates and humans and therefore, the doubts remain for a direct paraquat-induced parkinsonism in human. To define a remedial measure, extensive studies are required on the cause and prognosis of Parkinson’s Disease induced by such environmental toxicant.


Intrinsically unstructured regions (IURS) in Argonaute-1 sequences across various domains of life
PROTIP BASU
PROTIP BASU
(Corresponding Author)
protipbasu@gmail.com

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata; & Department of Botany, Jhargram Raj College, West Bengal.

SAYAK GANGULI
SAYAK GANGULI

HIRAK JYOTI CHAKRABORTY
HIRAK JYOTI CHAKRABORTY

ABHIJIT DATTA
ABHIJIT DATTA

Page : 117-120 , vol : 69 ,No : 4 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Argonaute proteins have established themselves as key players in the RNAi mechanisms across all domains of life. In plants several types of argonaute proteins are present which are involved in the different small RNA related pathways. Likewise in animals, fungi (Quelling) and Protists argonaute proteins are mostly involved in the microRNA and siRNA related pathways. In some higher eukaryotic taxa they serve as elongation factors as well. This study explores the sequence complexities of Argonaute 1 protein across various domains of life and attempts to identify whether any intrinsically unstructured regions are present in the proteins under study.


Urinary pH and insulin resistance in offspring of diabetic parents
K SENTHAMIL SELVI
K SENTHAMIL SELVI
(Corresponding Author)
selvi66@gmail.com

Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Madagadipet, Puducherry.

B SUBATHRA
B SUBATHRA

Intern, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Madagadipet, Puducherry

Page : 121-124 , vol : 69 ,No : 4 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Background and Aim: Recent studies try to find out parameters which can be used as predictors of type2 diabetes. Few investigations done in children of Type2 diabetic parents suggest the impact of family history and the presence of certain risk factors of the disease at an early age. We studied the presence of insulin resistance and changes in urinary pH in offspring of diabetic parents. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects with one or both diabetic parents were compared with thirty subjects who are offspring of non diabetic parents. Results: No stastically significant difference was observed between the two groups in any of the values. Conclusion: Using insulin resistance and urinary pH as predictors of type2 diabetes is questionable. We may have to do further studies associating other risk factors like increased BMI with the family history.


Green tea leaf extract as a herbal castrative agent on male albino rat
SHYAMAL KANTI DAS
SHYAMAL KANTI DAS

SOUMENDRA NATH KARMAKAR
SOUMENDRA NATH KARMAKAR
(Corresponding Author)

Post Graduate Department Of Physiology, Krishnath College, Berhampore, Murshidabad, W.B.

Page : 69-75 , vol : 69 ,No : 3 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

In this study Green Tea Leaf Extract (GTLE) is used as a herbal agent for application on animals for 26 consecutive days. This extract was prepared following the method of Wei et al (1999). The extract was administered to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses. After treatment, it was found that normal weight gains of all the animals were taken place but the percentage was slightly high in control animal group compared to two other experimental groups. Weight of the testis and epididymis were decreased after administration of GTLE compared to the control group of animals. SGPT and SGOT were not altered significantly after application of GTLE. Sperm count was reduced in experimental animal groups significantly in dose dependent manner. The testosterone level was also decreased in two treatment groups in dose dependent manner comparing to the animals of controlled groups.


A study of heart rate variability in under weight and over weight young individual
SOUMYA SARKAR
SOUMYA SARKAR
(Corresponding Author)
ssbdn1980@gmail.com

Department of Physiology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune-411018, Maharashtra, India.

N.G.BORADE
N.G.BORADE

SIBAPRAKASH MUKHERJEE
SIBAPRAKASH MUKHERJEE

A.A.JADHAV
A.A.JADHAV

Page : 76-82 , vol : 69 ,No : 3 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Obesity is a state of excess adipose tissue mass and it is generally expressed in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI). The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in regulating energy expenditure and body fat content. Heart rate variability (HRV) is one of the tests which measure the effect of autonomic regulation on the heart. In the present study , we have determined certain HRV related traits among two group of students having BMI>25 kg/m2, considered as overweight (OW) and BMI


A review on pharmacological profile of Plumbago indica L. and P. zeylanica L.
SUDIPTA KUMAR SIL
SUDIPTA KUMAR SIL
(Corresponding Author)

Department of Physiology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Medical College, Pimpri, Pune-411018, Maharashtra, India.

Page : 83-89 , vol : 69 ,No : 3 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Plumbago indica L. (known as Pink Doctorbush) and Plumbago zeylanica L. (also known as Doctorbush) are shrubby, widely distributed throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The literature reveals their wide range of applications in traditional system of medicines against various diseases, as antiinflammatory,anti-malarial, anti-fertility, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, wound healing, memory enhancer and anti-cancer. The therapeutic uses of the plant have been attributed to the presence of number of bioactive compounds, such as elliptinone, zeylanone, sistosterol and plumbagin.


Gemone Annotation- State of the art
RAHUL BANIK
RAHUL BANIK
(Corresponding Author)
rbanik2009@gmail.com

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata

SAYAK GANGULI
SAYAK GANGULI

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

Page : 90-92 , vol : 69 ,No : 3 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Genome annotation is of enormous significance in interpretation of the necessary information obtained from raw sequence data produced by genome sequencing projects. The process aids in identifying the biological significance of raw sequence data and thus putting our understanding of biological processes in proper context. There are two interrelated types of genomic annotation: structural and functional. Structural annotation deals with identified the genome elements (such as genes, promoters, and regulatory elements) whereas functional annotation assigns functions to these structural elements. Structural annotation is defined as finding genes in genomic DNA. Structural annotation is of two types: one, prediction based and another, sequence similarity based. Prediction based algorithms designed to find structures of gene(s) based on nucleotide sequence and composition whereas similarity based prediction is alignment with mRNA sequences (ESTs) from the same or related species to identification of motifs. In case of functional annotation, Gene Ontology (GO) plays an integral part. GO describes three attributes of gene product(s): molecular function, biological process and cellular component. The basic steps of functional annotation include BLAST, Mapping of GO terms, Annotation using an annotation rule, and finally statistical analysis of GO term distribution differences between groups of sequences. In this study, two unannotated sequences were used as samples for the analyses for functional annotation. After mapping the sequences, GO terms that were generated, describe the molecular function (F), biological process (P), and cellular component (C) e.g. DNA Binding (F), biosynthetic process (P), protein complex (C). Enzyme codes and KEGG pathway maps were generated for each sequence, which describe the different pathways like purine and pyrimidine metabolism, pentose phosphate pathway etc. Another important aspect is evidence code distribution i.e. the quality of annotation. Here, IEA (Inferred from electronic assay) is dominant.


Identification of HIV-1 protease inhibitors, using oleanolic acid as reference ligand
ADITI GANGOPADHYAY
ADITI GANGOPADHYAY
(Corresponding Author)
aig.bioinfo@gmail.com

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

SAYAK GANGULI
SAYAK GANGULI

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

ABHIJIT DATTA
ABHIJIT DATTA

Department of Botany, Jhargram Raj College, Jhargram.

Page : 35-42 , vol : 69 ,No : 2 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

The HIV-1 Protease is a homodimeric enzyme which is required in the HIV life cycle for cleavage of virus proteins prior to maturation. Although quite a number of HIV-1 Protease inhibitor drugs have been established, the major setback faced by most Anti Retroviral Therapies (ARTs) is the fact that the HIV is very susceptible to getting mutated, and some of these mutations are able to confer drug resistance to the HIV. Therefore it is imperative to identify new molecules which would be active against the mutant strains of HIV. In this study, we have employed a hybrid structure-based and ligand-based computational approach to identify novel lead compounds against the wild type and mutant strains of HIV-1 Protease, using Oleanolic acid as the reference ligand. Comparison of the docking results of our screened library with established drugs indicated that some plant steroidal alkaloids, including Condurangamine B and Rostratamine, showed better docking results than the established drugs, and therefore could be further explored as lead compounds.


Comparative studies of body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of tribal and non-tribal children of 10-16 years age group
INDRANIL MANNA
INDRANIL MANNA
(Corresponding Author)
indranil_manna@yahoo.com

Department of Physiology, Midnapore College, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.

SWADESH RANJAN PAN
SWADESH RANJAN PAN

Department of Physical Education, Jhargram Raj College, Jhargram, West Bengal, India

MAHUA CHOWDHURY
MAHUA CHOWDHURY

Department of Community Medicine, B.S. Medical College, Bankura, West Bengal, India

Page : 43-52 , vol : 69 ,No : 2 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness reflect the overall capacity to carry out exercise. The present study was undertaken to investigate the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of the tribal and non-tribal children of 10-16 yrs age group, in order to identify sports talent. Three fifty (350) male children between 10-16 yrs volunteered for this study. The children were divided into 2 groups- (a) tribal (n=175) and (b) non-tribal (n=175); and again divided into 7 sub-groups (25 children in each group): (i) 10 yrs, (ii) 11 yrs, (iii) 12 yrs, (iv) 13 yrs, (v) 14 yrs, (vi) 15 yrs, (vii) 16 yrs. The anthropometric and physical fitness variables were measured for each group. ANOVA followed by multiple comparison tests were performed to find out the significant difference among the variables. A higher (P<0.05) body mass, waist hip ratio (WHR), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), body fat and reaction time; and lower (P<0.05) VO2max, FVC, FEV1 and PEFR were observed among the non-tribal children when compared to tribal children. No change was reported in height, BMI, BSA, LBM, resting heart rate and HRmax among the tribal and non-tribal children of either age group. It can be suggested that, as the tribal children have significantly better physical fitness than non-tribal children, therefore more emphasis should be given on the tribal children for identification of potentiality and talent in sports.


Inter-relationship between nutritious food habit, obesity, anxiety and academic achievement of the primary school children of Kolkata, West Bengal
SUJIT PAL
SUJIT PAL
(Corresponding Author)

Deputy Director of Public Instruction (Training), Education Directorate, Higher Education Department, Govt. of West Bengal.

Page : 53-62 , vol : 69 ,No : 2 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

The development of a nation is closely interlinked with the educational level of its future
citizens. Various studies have provided enough evidence of the importance of proper nutrition to the cognitive development of an individual which also affects their educational achievements. Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders in developed countries. On the other hand, obesity is recognized to be one of the greatest public health problems worldwide. The present study was designed for understanding the interrelationship between nutritious food habit, obesity, anxiety and academic achievement of the primary school children. Standard questionnaires were adopted and applied on the target population to measure the different attributes. The collected data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient (P<0.05). Study revealed a significant negative relationship between academic achievement and obesity (measured by body mass index or BMI) of the children (-0.474**, P<0.01).Similar kind of relationship was also observed among nutritious food habit score and obesity (-0.795**, P<0.01).But there exist a positive significant relationship between anxiety and obesity (0.223*, P<0.05). It is interesting to note that moderate anxiety enhances academic achievement of the student rather than low or severe anxiety. It is suggested from the present study that the childhood i.e golden period for learning should provide better nutrition .Therefore the importance of nutrition in primary school curriculum and improvement of the learning environment related to nutrition need to be emphasized on school campuses.


Severe inflammation in oral planus might be responsible for carcinogenic potency
PRATITI GHOSH
PRATITI GHOSH
(Corresponding Author)

Associate Professor & Head, Department of Physiology, West Bengal State University, Barasat, North 24 Parganas.

Page : 63-65 , vol : 69 ,No : 2 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

The erosive form of oral lichen planus (OLP) shows apparently severe inflammation which is further confirmed from histological studies and from the overexpression of its inflammatory markers viz., NFkB, IL-6, TNF-a, COX-2 and iNOS. These characteristics in networked interaction with reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, inactivation of apoptosis or of death receptor pathways, as observed in cancerous condition, obviate OLP as a disease with tumorigenic potency.


Physical growth pattern of bengalee boys and gils during childhood and adolescence
PRATITI GHOSH
PRATITI GHOSH
(Corresponding Author)

Associate Professor & Head, Department of Physiology, West Bengal State University, Barasat, North 24 Parganas.

DEBJANI MANDAL
DEBJANI MANDAL

West Bengal State University.

Page : 3-14 , vol : 69 ,No : 1 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

The differential physical growth rate pattern of the lower socioeconomic strata of the Bengalee population is apparent but has not yet been looked into in a systematic manner.So crosssectional study on physical growth rate has been conducted on Bengalee boys and girls (aged 5 to 15 years) of lower middle socioeconomic group (LMIG) of West Bengal for a period of one year.Anthropometric measurements were performed on randomly selected 255 schoolgoing children and adolescents (123 females and 132 males) and their nutritional status was assessed by 24 hours recall method.Age and sex-specific sitting height velocity, leg length velocity, maximum height and body weight difference, body mass index(BMI), along with their bicep and subscapular skinfold thickness were observed to vary significantly(p<0.05) in Bengalee population of LMIG. Skinfold thickness of LMIG Bengalee boys and girls indicated thinning of fat layer of upper limb and lower trunk during adolescent growth spurt for both sexes. Different grades of malnutrition were reflected from the LMIG children and they were mostly on high-cereal based diet. So, moderate to chronic undernutrition was observed among Bengalee boys and girls during their growth period. So the growth pattern of Bengalee boys and girls during childhood and adolescence in LMIG showed peak annual incremental growth in 9 -10 year-old girls and 11 -12 year old boys which is about a year earlier than the welloff urban Bengalee as well as Indian boys and girls. Moreover, comparison of differential growth of sitting height and leg length velocity indicated shorter adult height among Bengalee as well as Indian population.


Sublethal haematological effects of Fenthion on the fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio.
LEENA MURALIDHARAN
LEENA MURALIDHARAN
(Corresponding Author)
leena.doctor@gmail.com

Department of Zoology, V. K. Krishna Menon College, Bhandup (E), Mumbai;Affliated to Mumbai University.

Page : 15-20 , vol : 69 ,No : 1 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

The present work was conducted to evaluate the haemato-biochemical alterations such as plasma levels of glucose, lactic acid, protein, haemoglobin, along with clotting time in Cyprinus carpio exposed to the three different sub- lethal doses (0.38 mg/l, 0.193 mg/l & 0.096 mg/l) of fenthion for 60 days.

Blood serum of exposed and unexposed C. carpio was analysed to determine glucose (Folin- Wu method), lactic acid (Berker & Summerson method), protein (Lowry method) and haemoglobin contents (Acid haematin method) as well as coagulation time (Lee & White method) after 60 days test period.

Sublethal exposure(0.38mg/l) of fenthion showed increase of 57% blood glucose and 34% lactic acid levels and reduced the protein and haemoglobin content to 28%. The clotting time was also reduced to 32% in the exposed fish.

In the present investigation, it was observed that stressed C. carpio exhibited gill damage caused by tissue hypoxia at 0.38 mg/ml. It is likely that hypoxia stimulated the increase in blood glucose and lactic acid levels for providing anaerobic energy source during fenthion stress. Decrease in protein level may be due to its degradation and its utilization for gluconeogenesis to cope with the fenthion- related high energy demand. Decrease in haemoglobin content and clotting time may be due to histo- pathological damages observed in the liver. Reduction in protein, haemoglobin content and clotting time with elevation of blood glucose and lactic acid levels in fenthion- induced fish indicates shift in metabolism to compensate the toxicity stress.


Tregs suppress macrophage tumoricidal functions
POULAMI SAHA
POULAMI SAHA

Department of Zoology, Balurghat College, Balurghat, West Bengal.

TATHAGATA CHAKRABORTY
TATHAGATA CHAKRABORTY
(Corresponding Author)

Department of Zoology, Balurghat College, Balurghat, West Bengal.

Page : 21-27 , vol : 69 ,No : 1 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Macrophages are well-known for their tumoricidal functions. In order to ascertain the effect of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) on macrophage tumoricidal functions, macrophages purified from healthy individuals were co-cultured with Tregs for 48 hours and cytotoxicity assay was performed with macrophage sensitive lymphoma cells, U937. Results clearly suggested that Tregs significantly inhibit (p<) macrophage mediated tumor cell killing, as observed in cultures using different E:T ratios.


piRNA diversity across model species and humans revealed through Kohonen maps
SAYAK GANGULI
SAYAK GANGULI

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

ABHIJIT DATTA
ABHIJIT DATTA

Department of Botany, Jhargram Raj College, Jhargram.

VINEET VISHAL
VINEET VISHAL
(Corresponding Author)
vineet.vishal73@gmail.com

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

PANKAJ K. SINGH
PANKAJ K. SINGH

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

ABHISEK R. BERA
ABHISEK R. BERA

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

PROTIP BASU
PROTIP BASU

DBT Centre for Bioinformatics, Presidency University, Kolkata.

Page : 28-31 , vol : 69 ,No : 1 , Year : 2015
Abstract :

Transposons (Transposable Elements or TEs) are a constant menace for human genome integrity as various diseases like SCID, DMD, Haemophilias, have been attributed to retrotransposon activity etc. Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) plays a pivotal role in RNA interference and their mechanism involved silencing selfish genetic material (Transposonable elements) in the germline and there by preserving genome integrity between generation. This study attempts to gain insights on the conserved features of piRNA using an artificial intelligence technique – Self Organizing Map (Kohonen Map).


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